What is unfreezable water? Is it the same as bound

What is 'unfreezable water'? Is it the same as bound water or water of hydration? Water can remain unfrozen at low temperatures and ordinary pressures because of freezing point depression due to hydration freezing point depression due to osmotic effects (these are both equilibrium effects)

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Freeze distillation

Thermodynamics gives fair assurance even without more information about alcohol and water than that they freely dissolve in each other that even if temperatures somewhat below the freezing point of ethyl alcohol are achieved there will still be alcohol and water mixed as a liquid and at some still lower temperature the remaining alcohol-and-water solution will freeze without an alcohol

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The freezing process in methanol

Solid-liquid phase diagrams including metastable phases have been obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for methanol- ethanol- and propanol-water systems The metastable solid phases which are initially formed on cooling were detected for these three systems in order to analyze the freezing processes and to correlate the formation of the

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Aqueous alcohols

High water content weakens the average strength of hydrogen-bonding in the mixture as individual water–water interactions are then weaker than those between the alcohol and water The partial molar volumes of water and the alcohols usually present a complex picture (see right) where the total volumes are reduced compared with the sum of the individual volumes

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Freeze‐drying of tert‐butyl alcohol/water cosolvent

For the sucrose/ TBA/water system the temperature and time of secondary drying had only minimal influence on residual TBA in the freeze‐dried solid At low initial TBA concentrations (2%) residual TBA increases with increased cake thickness perhaps because of the influence of depth of fill on effective freezing rate

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What Causes a Lower Freezing Point?

A mixture of table salt and water does have a lower freezing point as does a water-alcohol mixture Chemists can predict the freezing-point temperature difference by applying a formula that takes into account the amounts of the substance involved and a constant associated with the second substance For example if you calculate for water and

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Raoult's Second law and the freezing temperature

The percentage of alcohol and water is known - 40% From this we can determine the molal concentration of vodka Define how much alcohol (m1) should be added per kilogram of water (m2) to obtain a 40% ratio (K) therefore Thus to achieve a 40% solution in 1 kg of water it's necessary to pour about 666 6 (6) grams of alcohol

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At what temperature does whisky freeze?

The alcohol formed in beverages such as whiskey and brandy is called ethanol and this liquid freezes at 114 degrees below zero on the Celsius scale However alcohol spirits are never that pure so the freezing point of a whiskey is largely depen

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Does Alcohol Freeze?

But if you lower the alcohol content and raise the freezing point you could end up with a freezer disaster if you don't play your cards right (or a tasty frozen cocktail if you do) Wine is 85 to 90 percent water so it freezes at about 20 F (-6 7 C) — the water freezes first at 32 F (zero C) and then the alcohol after that [source: Wine Spectator ]

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Aqueous alcohols

Dmitri Mendeleev (of the Periodic Table fame) suggested that vodka should be about 38% ethyl alcohol by volume (5 H 2 O : 1 ethyl alcohol) in 1893 and this was followed by Russian law stating the next year that all vodka had to be produced at 40% alcohol by volume Protonated alcohols present a much simpler structure to protonated water as they consist of simple

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What is Antifreeze?

The first automotive antifreeze was methyl alcohol or methanol which has a lower freezing point than water That made it a good antifreeze but other characteristics of methanol rendered it a poor automotive antifreeze In particular alcohol tends to corrode the metals that it comes into contact with inside cooling systems

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Freezing point depression of polymer solutions and gels

The freezing point depression of polymer solutions was measured in the concentration range 5% to 30% (by volume of polymer) particular attention being paid to avoid excess supercooling The polymer‐solvent combinations investigated were polystyrene‐benzene polyvinyl acetate‐benzene cellulose acetate‐acetic acid and polyvinyl alcohol‐water

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Freezing Point of Salt Water

The amount of salt in the water has a crucial role to play in determining its freezing point so we need to find out how much salt the water contains in order to find out what its freezing point is In case of sea water the average salt content is 35 parts per thousand and therefore its freezing point is −1 8C (−28 9F)

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What is Antifreeze?

The first automotive antifreeze was methyl alcohol or methanol which has a lower freezing point than water That made it a good antifreeze but other characteristics of methanol rendered it a poor automotive antifreeze In particular alcohol tends to corrode the metals that it comes into contact with inside cooling systems

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FLASH POINT DETERMINATION OF BINARY MIXTURES OF ALCOHOLS

FLASH POINT DETERMINATION OF BINARY MIXTURES OF ALCOHOLS KETONES AND WATER P J Martnez E Rus and J M Compaa Departamento de Ingeniera Qumica Facultad de Ciencias Universidad de Mlaga 29071 Mlaga (SPAIN) cuestauma es Abstract The flash point of pure organic compounds their mixtures and their mixtures with water is a

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FLASH POINT DETERMINATION OF BINARY MIXTURES OF ALCOHOLS

FLASH POINT DETERMINATION OF BINARY MIXTURES OF ALCOHOLS KETONES AND WATER P J Martnez E Rus and J M Compaa Departamento de Ingeniera Qumica Facultad de Ciencias Universidad de Mlaga 29071 Mlaga (SPAIN) cuestauma es Abstract The flash point of pure organic compounds their mixtures and their mixtures with water is a

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Ethanol Formula Boiling Melting Point pH Density

Freezing and flash points of ethanol based water solutions – brines Engineering ToolBox Alcohol its origins English-Word Information Elia M et al 207 Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

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What Is the Freezing Point of Water?

The freezing point describes the liquid to solid transition while the melting point is the temperature at which water goes from a solid (ice) to liquid water In theory the two temperatures would be the same but liquids can be supercooled beyond their freezing points so that they don't solidify until well below freezing point

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How to Calculate the Freezing and Boiling Point

Boiling and freezing points of pure substances are well-known and easily looked up For instance almost everyone knows that the freezing point of water is 0 degrees Celsius and the boiling point of water is 100 degrees Celsius Freezing and boiling points change when matter is dissolved into a liquid freezing

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Isopropyl Alcohol 70%

Odor Alcohol-like Odor threshold Highest known value: 22 ppm pH Neutral Melting point/freezing point -88 5C (-127 3F) Initial boiling point and boiling range 82 5C (180 5F) Flash point CLOSED CUP: 18 3C (64 9F) Evaporation rate Not Available Flammability (solid gas) Flammable

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Fractional freezing

Fractional freezing is a process used in process engineering and chemistry to separate substances with different melting points It can be done by partial melting of a solid for example in zone refining of silicon or metals or by partial crystallization of a liquid as in freeze distillation also called normal freezing or progressive freezing The initial sample is thus fractionated

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